Review Sejarah Diplomasi: Jurnal 1-8


SEJARAH DIPLOMASI GLOBAL YUNANI KUNO DAN ABAD PERTENGAHAN

Jurnal I

  1. DEFINISI DIPLOMASI[GER1]

Komunikasi politik [GER2] yang terjadi di antara aktor negara secara khusus dan nonnegara secara umum, yang tertuang dalam negosiasi dalam usaha untuk memenuhi kebutuhan reguler yakni mengembangkan hubungan.

Diplomasi berkaitan dengan usaha untuk mencapai kepentingan nasional melalui komunikasi politik, sosial, budaya, hukum, pertahanan, dan keamanan dalam skala internasoinal (William, 2008)

  1. KAPAN DIPLOMASI MENJADI KAJIAN HI

Diplomasi merupakan mesinnya hubungan internasional. Diplomasi muncul setiap saat dan tempat entitas politik dengan identitas berbeda melihat dan menyaksikan kebutuhan reguler untuk mengembangkan hubungan. Sebagaimana, peradaban manusia Mesopotamia, Yunani, Roma dan peradaban pada abad pertengahan.  Akan tetapi, diplomasi menjadi kajian HI sejak perang dingin berakhir dan muncul kebutuhan reguler untuk mengembangkan hubungan internasional yang lebih damai (peaceful), melalui kooperasi, mutual agreement, mutual understanding, etc.

  1. Mesopotamia

Pengetahuan terbesar mengenai praktik awal kegiatan diplomasi berasal dari budaya peradaban Mesopotamia pada 2850 BC.

Buktinya:

  1. Diskoveri bahasa diplomatik: bahasa Akadia[GER3]
  2. Surat-menyurat dari abad ke-14 SM antara penguasa Mesir dan Hitite: message—instrumen diplomasi berupa KOMUNIKASI
  3. Yunani
    1. Ikatan diplomasi antarpolis Yunani adalah
      1. Helenes v.s. Barbarians
      2. Pada masa Macedonia, raja Philip II, instrumen diplomasinya :
        1. i.      Panhelenism, sebagai propaganda[GER4]
        2. ii.      Menggunakan eksistensi Cendekiawan2, seperti Isocrates : persuasi
    2. Karakter diplomasi
      1. Diplomasi ancaman perang (DIPLOMACY FOR WAR), coercive power (militer)
      2. Instrumen Diplomasi : propaganda dan persuasi
      3. Roma
        1. Mewarisi tradisi diplomasi Yunani, mengadopsi, dan menyesuaikannya dengan tugas administrasi kekaisaran
          1. Fungsi diplomasi: perwakilan[GER5]
          2. Diplomasi:
            1. i.      Perluasan teritori dengan ikatan-ikatan perjanjian
              1. Dikenalkan terminologi LEGATI dan LEGATIO
              2. Abad Pertengahan (feodalisasi Gereja)
                1. Peran diplomasi dilakukan oleh PAUS dengan asas AGAMA
                  1. i.      Paus sebagai MEDIATOR konflik
                  2. Penurunan DIPLOMASI, sebab
                    1. i.      peta politik terpecah-pecah, masih, kombinasi perpecahan dan kekerasan melingkupi kehidupan kawasan internasional, ini merampas ruang gerak diplomasi. Mereka lebih suka berperang dan perang terus

ANALISIS

Diplomasi tidak hanya berkontribusi terhadap lahirnya perkembangan masyarakat internasional, diplomasi juga dipengaruhi oleh masyarakat peradaban. Hal ini disebabkan oleh masyarakat berevolusi menjadi entitas-entitas politik baru, yakni polis Yunani, suku-suku di Mesopotamia, etc. Sejarah diplomasi di empat peradaban berbeda tersebut mengindikasikan perubahan besar tetapi tidak dibarengi transformasi signifikan pada praktek-praktek diplomasi. Masa abad pertengahan antara beberapa macam polities berbeda telah memperdalam dan membawa pembaharuan terhadap kontekstual praktek dan pertukaran diplomasi[GER6] . Secara paralel, terdapat kesamaan yang ingin dicapai oleh penguasa Yunani, abad pertengahan, Roma; ketiganya diplomasi dilandasi oleh nilai internal yang merefleksikan kepentingan penguasa saat itu. Keyword: civilization, political entity, ancient diplomacy.

Jurnal II

MASYARKAT DIPLOMATIK EROPA: perang tiga puluh tahun and Path to Westphalia

Analisis[GER7]

Eropa pada abad tujuh belas dibentuk dari serangkaian common values dan common civilization yakni Lation Christendom yang mana pada abad pertengahan entitas spiritual agama secara faktual bersandingan dengan otoritas yang terdifusi. Sistem negara yang demikian kemudian terfragmentasi ke dalam beberapa emperor feodalis sampai ke tingkat negara kota seperti Venice, Lubeck, Bohemia etc. Peta kekuasaan bukan suatu yang solid. Meskipun balance of power terus menerus dijaga melalui satu kekuatan hegemoni (yakni Kekaisaran Romawi Suci) tidak kemudian resisten terhadap keinginan negara lain untuk menjadi hegemoni tunggal. Peran berlatar belakang agama dan semangat menyebarkan agama menjadi seakan-akan FAKTOR (nilai) DOMINAN DIPLOMASI dipraktikkan dalam aliansi-aliansi dan diplomasi rahasia antarpersekutuan.

Westpahlia menegaskan teritori negara yang diakui dan diteguhkan kedaulatannya guna menjamin kestabilan politik.

  1. The Quest for position for Hegemony
  2. Fase-fase aliansi
  3. Diakhiri oleh Westphalia: kongres diplomatik modern pertama (diakui secara otentik)
    1. Batas-batas teritorial jelas; negara sebagai entitas politik tertinggi (otoritas tertinggi, bukan gereja)
    2. Pengakuan kedaulatan nation-states
      1. i.      Prinsip kedaulatan: bebas intervensi asing
      2. Protestan dan Katolik sejajar kedudukannya
      3. Kehadiran Italia dengan kemajuan sekulerismenya

Karakter diplomasi

  1. New diplomatic system
    1. i.      Kedekatan dan keluargaan
    2. ii.      Dialog diplomasi melalui
      1. Persuasi, ancaman, aliansi terbuka, pernikahan, dan plot konspirasi
      2. iii.      Ada permanen agen, kedutaan dan embassy
        1. Warisan Italy Renaissance

Jurnal III

DIPLOMASI ABAD 20[GER8]

  1. Westphalia
    1. Konferensi multilateral pertama
    2. Westphalia (terbukti) tidak menjamin kerangka kedamaian dan stabilitas politik yang harmonis[GER9]
    3. Westphaliaà distribusi of power= 5 Great Powers
      1. i.      Dirusak oleh perang Napoleon, diakhiri oleh perjanjian Vienna 1815
      2. ii.      Vienna 1815, setting of conduct nya praktik diplomasi diikuti oleh konteks Aux Chappele
        1. Meliputi fungsi, tugas, hak, kewajiban dan fungsi diplomat
        2. Residen minister, embassy, konsulat dan charges d’affaires
        3. World War I goals: Glory[GER10]
          1. i.      Kolonialisme dan imperialisme
          2. Karakter Diplomasi terbentuk dari nilai kolonialisme dan imperialisme kuno
          3. Karakter DIPLOMASI FOR WAR[GER11]
            1. i.      Bilateral
            2. ii.      Secret
            3. iii.      Instrumen diplomasi : Agitasi[GER12]
            4. iv.      Karakter diplomasi dalam perjanjian
              1. Rappalo (diplomatic trade relations: italia—Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia)
              2. Locarno (Status quo: diplomacy for mutualism dan frontiers : Jerman—Perancis, Chzecoslovakia, Inggris, Belgia)
              3. Briand-Kellog (diplomacy for Peace: mendekatkan Jerman dg Perancis)
              4. Diplomasi mengalami kecacatan fungsi
                1. i.      Diplomat dianggap inkompeten, tidak intelegent, rentan terhadap bencana[GER13]

ANALISIS

Diplomasi bilateral dan diplomasi rahasia menjadi karakter diplomasi saat itu. Kegiatan diplomasi tidak didedikasikan untuk menjalin hubungan baik internal aliansi. Jadi diplomasi bukan perangkat untuk meredakan ketegangan dan kecurigaan melainkan instrumen untuk memperkuat ikatan aliansi. Framework diplomasi saat itu banyak dikendalikan oleh lima kekuatan besar Eropa. Praktek diplomasi sebagian besar for war—diplomasi perang (bukan diplomasi untuk berperang, 2 terminologi berbeda). Kelemahan karakter diplomasi yang demikian terletak pada objektivitasnya yakni, tidak diperuntukkan untuk mencapai perdamaian.

Jurnal IV

DIPLOMASI SETELAH PERANG[GER14]

  1. Versailles: legitimasi kejahatan perang yang dibebankan pada Jerman
    1. Karakter diplomasi Versailles: diplomacy for Punishment and Diplomacy for Revenge
    2. Akibat
      1. i.      Self determinasi
      2. ii.      Sistem mandat
      3. iii.      14 points of Wilson
      4. Tujuan awal Versailles: menjamin stabilitas internasional (balance of power: karena bersifat kompetitif)
      5. Karakter diplomasi
        1. Preventive diplomacy 14 points of Wilson
          1. i.      Diplomacy for collective security system (Washington Conference)
          2. ii.      Diplomacy of Finance (Dawes’ Plan)
          3. iii.      Diplomacy of Trade (Germany-Russia frontiers)
          4. iv.      Diplomacy of Commerce (collective diplomacy for Oil)
          5. v.      Diplomacy of Economic
          6. vi.      Diplomacy for Peace (Geneva Pact)
          7. vii.      Diplomacy dalam asosiasi (LBB)
            1. Pola diplomasi: asosiasi dan conference
            2. Karakter utama diplomasi setelah perang:
              1. i.      Diplomacy of Compromise (preventive diplomacy) : UK US
              2. ii.      Coercive diplomacy: France Italy
              3. Issues dalam diplomasi
                1. i.      Batas teritorial (Locarno Pact)
                2. ii.      Amerika-Pasif dalam internasional (Washington conference dan Briand-Kellog Pact)à cermin konservatif internasionalisme[1]
                3. iii.      Revisionisme= pencitraan kembali dunia yang penuh damai (idealisme Wilson)
                4. iv.      Nationalities (Rappalo Pact)

ANALISIS

Ruang lingkup diplomasi pada era setelah perang terfokus pada beragam aspek kepentingan nasional terbaru (trade, commerce, economic oil). Perlahan koersif diplomasi mulai berkurang peminatnya semata-mata disebabkan keengganan untuk berperang baik dalam konteks ekonomi maupun psikologi). Diplomasi secara politik kemudian sering dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk menjaga perdamaian dan harmonisme kawasan internasional. Nilai-nilai baru diplomasi yang tertuang dalam 14 poin Wilson kemudian menjadi manifestasi kebutuhan akan suatu lembaga internasional bertindak sebagai wadah negosiasi dan diplomasi internasional. Pola diplomasi yang diperkenalkan dalam masa ini berupa diplomasi preventif, diplomasi kompromi, dan diplomasi asosiasi yang ketiganya terangkum dalam terminologi DIPLOMACY FOR PEACE. Analisis diplomasi terletak pada sudut pandang aktor, perilaku, tujuan, dan isu yang sedang diminati dalam kepentingan nasional.

Jurnal V

MENUJU PERANG 1935-1940[GER15]

  1. Pola diplomasi
    1. Preventive diplomacy gagal
      1. i.      Czechoslovakia Crisis
      2. ii.      Shino Japan Crisis

Sebab KHUSUS kegagalan LBB

  1. iii.      German invaded Poland
  2. iv.      Italy invaded Ethiopia
  3. v.      Japan invaded Manchuria (China)
  4. Karakter diplomasi
    1. Jerman, Italia, JepangàDiplomacy of War era
    2. Perkembangan diplomasi:

Kemunduran preventif diplomasi

Kejatuhan ekonomi Atlantik utara (liberalisme Amerika): Great Depression 1933, Black Tuesday

Kebangkitan sosialis Rusia (Sosial komunisme Stalin)

  1. Isu diplomasi
    1. Pelanggaran Locarno Pact, Briand-Kellog Pact, Washington Conference (by Japan)
    2. i.      Kebangkitan Nazi di Eropa tengah
    3. ii.      Kebangkitan Fasisme Italia di Afrika Utara
    4. iii.      Kebangkitan Fasisme Jepang di Asia Pasifik

Sejarah diplomasi VII 20 November

Subsequently, Cold War is typified by bloc-building, political rivalry and confrontation, military competition and lack of free economic interaction. An initial inquiry spoke the outset of Cold war emerged when USSR disagreed with the US long-term of aid for whole Europe reconstruction economically after the catastrophic WW II. It was symbolized by the Russians walked out of Paris Conference (Deighton, 4: 82).

European cold war occurred due to US ambition to end Pacific war against Japan. In his effort, US requested for USSR military aid. US exercised diplomacy for transaction in which suggested that certain regions of Europe would be given up to USSR as a war cost. Instead of diplomacy of transaction, US had utilized diplomacy of atomic which the instrument of diplomacy was primarily was the using threat of atomic bombing.

In response to US request, USSR ultimately accepted the deal, soon a large regions of Eastern Europe belong to USSR. This type of diplomacy implemented both in Yalta and Potsdam conference had enabled USSR for becoming a considerably giant power in the next future, soon called the Cold War.

Instead of that, Potsdam meeting had defined certain decision in conducting control of Germany cooperatively, there constituted minors treaties carried out by victors . Some treaties and minors had proved that there were a rising tension between East-West. Especially within the conferences: Moscow foreign ministers conference, Paris Conference, December foreign ministers conference had become instances that symbolized the end of the wartime alliance (Deighton,4: 42). This generated two blocs building. A physical evidence was Germany division both ideologically and diplomatically in to two different part, West-East and East-West. East was typically refered to USSR-Stalin, while West refered to the power of British, France, and United States and their allies.

Three categories drawn by John Lewis Gaddis in an attempt to explain the cold war situation in Europe: Orthodoxy, revisionism, and post-revisionism.

Orthodoxy accounts, saying that USSR desire to expand its borders and influence, drove US to implement diplomacy for defense within each of their policy (known as defensive policy, and containtment policy).

Revisionists, rather than putting USSR expansion in guilty, they stated a clear view points to blame US.

Post revisionists, combined those two points into one.

Later, those three approaches will be used to draw an adequate explanation to respectively focus on the roles of ideology, decision-making factors, and geostrategic factors.

IDEOLOGY

According to early Western analyst, a work of traditional perspective, viewed that the cold war was rooted in Marxist-Leninist ideology in forming a totalitarian government in which it’s nearly impossible to conduct diplomacy for business, either trade or commerce. The combine of both Marxist-Leninist and Communist ideology shaped its foreign policy, saying that USSR is not ready to ‘give-and-take’ of peacetime in international politics, but USSR seemed ready to challenge the status quo what the former allies were expecting for (Deighton, 85). On the contrary, US who carried a liberated ideology, held the principles of universalism, self-determination, equality and freedom, antiMarxism-Leninism, were part of his foreign policy making as a balance or counterpart against USSR ideology.

DECISION MAKING FACTORS

Talking about decision making factors, we must point out our views within the frame of foreign policy held by each different states, either USSR or US, and the study and analysing of each of their foreign policy. FP basicly explains how one state either rationally or irrationally react to other’s state events. The underground of decision making at that time was characterized by the experience of ‘what can be learned from the past and how the images of hostile power (kekuatan berlawangan) is likely to be seen’.

The situation and condition of cold war at that time, can be viewed by analysing the relationships and foreign policy formulation between one state and other.

What can be concluded is there was a distinctive difference of foreign policy implementing by set of liberated countries (such as British, France, US and alike) with socialist countries (such as USSR, East germany, China, and Commintern members). The difference was put on their practice to maintain a tied relations: liberated countries’ diplomacy applied a term of peacetime international and institutionalized trade and alliances with a frame of liberalization (open diplomacy with low issues such as education, new economic and industrial development soon was famous as a global economic system).

While Socialist countries maintained their tied relationships with a diplomacy within their own members (closed diplomacy). Diplomacy conducted with more military supports, political power to support certain politician, and diplomacy for agricultural trade.

GEOSTRATEGIC FACTORS

Talking about geostrategic factors, we must focus our inquiry on the shifting on international power mapping. In which, British (after WW I) was previously familiar a powerful nation in Europe, but subsequently gained altered position from strong state to less powerful, either economically or militarily. Thus there was a shift of who is being percieved as a world Hegemon.

Second, just when WW II above to begin, German remained as the strongest player among all, once Germany surrender marked as the end of WW II, there was a vacuum power. This vacum condition, according to structuralist view (kenneth Waltz, a neorealist) would be likely and automatically filled by a new hegemon, a new power. However, there were two great remaining powers feasible to fill the vacum, both are the same as powerful as others. US was as responsible as USSR. However, there were many excuses which put ‘one’ (either US or USSR) was not willingly to be less than another. Neorealist agreed that a diplomacy of peacetime international maintained by both was hardly possible because both countries had a completely different views understanding peacetime international.

REFERENCE
Deighton, Anne. The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1947.

The Superpower Competition 1945-1962

Emerging Nations  as a Non-Aligned Movement

As the world war ends, it produces a large decolonization. Such large decolonization emerges as a call for growing nationalism. Nationalism has its nown importance to breed several new states embedded with opportunity to grow as powerful as other states. One of instances are Indonesia, liberated from Netherland; Egypt, liberated from France; Iran liberated from Great Britain; India, liberated from Great Britain also.

Nationalism rests inside deconolization. Sometimes nationalism has been a powerful tool to demonstrate power as Japan did in the same year of Cold War. Another value of nationalism was to deminish central power possesed by several great empires such as Great Britain, France and Portugal. Nationalism has been a symbol for united States to emphasize its domination after WW II.

As col war initiates bloc division in to East-West, terminology emanated to define power competition between US-capitalist and USSR-communist. Looking pforward to escaping these two blocs, India and Indonesia begin a new ways to neutral, which later so called non-aligned movement.

Non-aligned movement is frist commenced through small regional conference where discusion then established between new emerging nations such as India and Indonesia. Having a similar history background, together Indonesia and India encourages several countries to join their union held in Bandung, in Bandung Conference.  The first time booth leaders invited medias to recor their agenda. It is an agenda to establish an isntitution of non-aligned movement that suggests a neutral bloc in order to avoid falling into conflicts of US-USSR.

As bandung congerence has resulted a non-aligned movement with its members, the actual worll wasn’t completely neutral, some nations somehow prefer either one of two blocs. However, one thing we shall note is some other countries remained neutral was Iran, Iraq, Sudan, and Libya. While on the opposite, another countries chose communist bloc were China and Vietnam among them. Another neutral movement mainly camong from African countries, they joined Bandung conferece as a call for a new power of newly liberated and independent countries.

COERCIVE DIPLOMACY

During cold war, diplomacy has discovered new techniques. First technique, USSR and US have employed secret agency to spy each other. Spying was a crucial tool to make assessment how far another country’s superiority is. US has employed CIA against KGB of USSR. Each agency was a pecialiest and expertise on a certain area. Cia is famous of his fine competence to spy human. KGB has good competence to spy materials.

Second, there’s competition in space technology. As Soviet union launched several spacecrafts to orbit eart equipped with a very brand new development of Slayut space station with MIR, technology to peek US. Meanwhile, US developed Skylab to balance SU domnation in outer space.

In the first phase of Cold War, Soviet Union seems to have a much advantages either military of technology. It is proved that Soviet Union has more missiles and soon discovered that Soviet Union has as much as disastrous atomic bomb as US does. This makes soviet Union regarded as stronger as US. Both US and Soviet union then conduct a diplomacy concerning on atomic weapons.

A competition between US and SU becomes more intense. Each of them attempting to reach as much as another nations to commit into one of the existing bloc.

I have previously discssed about new type of diplomacy which baasically based on competition, suspiciousness, and superiority. This Cold war climate makes both blocs almost commit to suicide—hehe war, I mean, but yet war is always avoided. I wonder why, because there would be no any difference if the third world war would break, as long as another country didn’t willingly join their stupid war, I guess the only country who would likely to vanish were only SU and US. There would be another vacum of power. Don’t you think so. And its good for Malaysia to fill that position, I think Malaysia will have that big courage as he unembarassedly use to.

Another strategy of compellence has been introduced within this framework of diplomacy. strategy of compellence is intended to intimidate. At the moment conld war had just merely started, there was a concern regarding power. The concern rested on ‘power’ has been familiar with military capability. The more secure a nation may feel, the more secure its fellow country will be. On the contrary, the less secure a nation may feel, he will arm himself. The less secure a nation may feel, so is another country will be.

Another way to stop the war, is the EEC and diplomacy of peace.

Previously has been narrarted about coercive diplomacy which basically characterized by competition, suspiciousness and superiority.it directs to tension escalating and tied arm and space race between US and USSR. While bothe are busily competing each other, another region in Europe reacts Cold war in different ways.

Europe started to commence to implement a new way of soft diploamcy exist within a permanent international body, such as EEC.

Nations in Europe continent were appling soft diploamcy that tends to cover a broad scope of any possible agreement and cooperation. It is rested into the aspects of economic, maily, military-reducing arms and reducing political-tensions.

Source:

Wasserstein, Bernard. 2007. The History of Europe. London: Oxford University Press.


[1] Hubungan luar negeri Amerika yang didasarkan pada kepentingan domestik nasional sebagai prioritas utama, kekuatan militer dan ekonomi perdagangan pada prioritas selanjutnya, disertai keyakinan bahwa pola hubungan internasional banyak berpusat pada negara sebagai aktor tunggal


[GER1]

Pengertian diplomasi secara umum, dalam konteks saat ini, atau kontemporer

[GER2]

Sejak interwar, postwar, WW I and WW II: diplomasi kebanyakan melibatkan komunikasi politik pemimpin2 negara besar, sebut saja PM Inggris, Winstons Churchill; Presiden Amerika Serikat, Woodrow Wilson and FD Roosevelt; Pemimpin SU, Stalin, Lenin, Kruschev, Breznev, Gorbachev.

[GER3]

Esensi Diplomasi yang masih digunakan sampai modern diplomasi ialah

Penggunaan bahasa diplomasi internasional

Akar diplomasi kuno dari peradaban lama adalah

Penemuan bahasa Akadia sebagai bahasa komunikasi antarsuku yang bertetangga

Surat menyurat menjadi bukti adanya praktik diplomasi pada masa peradaban lama walaupun belum dilegitimasi secara konsesi bersama (namanya juga kuno)

[GER4]

Philips ‘PanHelenism’ sebagai propagandanya untuk menyatukan seluruh negara Polis melawan satu  musuh yang sama saat itu, yakni Persia

Dinilai berhasil

[GER5]

Maksudnya mengirim perwakilan ke negara2 tetangga baik untuk menakluk, mengancam, dan mematai2 mereka

[GER6]FOKUS ANALISIS

Intinya adalah, diplomasi mendapat pengaruh dan kemajuan, diskoveri besar-besaran melalui peradaban lama saat itu yang berpusat di Yunani, Mesopotamia, dan Roma; akan tetapi perkembangan diplomasi selanjutnya yakni di wilayah, Eropa, misalnya, diplomasi tidak  begitu mendapat perhatian besar: (1) Eropa saat itu masih lemah, karena peta politiknya yang pecah-pecah disebabkan serangkaian kekacauan, etc, apalagi saat itu sistem yang paling mendukung terbentuknya ruang bagi diplomasi adalah sistem gereja era abad pertengahan, dimana resolusi konflik selalu dijembatani oleh Paus, sebagai mediator diplomasi yang paling efisien.

[GER7]FOKUS ANALISIS

How treaties are set up

French as the international diplomatic language

French sent lots of his delegations to the treaty

Treaties signed in two different cities

Some important figures

Getting familiar with concept of Nation-state, and Europe condition during 17th Century

[GER8]FOKUS ANALISIS

To understand the concept of BoP

The Failure of treaty and the consequences for the future

The measurement of capability of diplomacy at that time

[GER9]

To understand the concept of BoP

Konsep BoP hadir karena situasi internasional yang anarkis dan kompetitif

Antara Perancis-Napoleon dengan empire besar di sekitarnya (kondisi geopolitik eropa) dengan negara2 empire yang saling bersaudara dekat, bertetangga erat, dll

[GER10]

Glory

Kejayaan diukur2 dari sebesar2nya wilayah teritory yang dapat ditaklukan

[GER11]

The Failure of the treaty and the consequences for the future

Growing notion that, at the END, war is the actual solution to stop the conflict

In other word, “War was perceived, at anycost, to be the best solution for anyconflict”

Thus leads to the “diploamcy for war”

Means, “Using a threat, you must agree with us/me, or I will demolish you and the entire region of yours”

Another consequences is

International assume that special envoys, embassy, and ambassador are no use

[GER12]Kekerasan, penggunaan militer

[GER13]

The measurement of capability of diplomacy at that time

[GER14]FOKUS ANtALISIS

Diplomatic writings, through treaes, pacts or conventions: (1) Verssailles: Diplomacy for revenge; (2) 14 Points of Wilson: Preventive diplomacy, a peaceful diplomacy, an age of Wilsonian built under ‘fear’ (refers Hobbessian Age), people are all basically afraid of any possibilty of future war.

Develop ‘new concepts’ of self determination etc (Consequences of Versailles, is Self determination, mandatory system, and 14 points of Wilson)

How economical situations can affect diplomacy like in US

[GER15]

The World war I had caused victorous country in Europe primarily British and France remained weak, economically and military. Both countries were heavily depends on US Economic Aid, as already mentioned there were several economic plans promoted by US: Dawes’ Plan, Marshall Plan etc (British and France had a huge debt on US). Because both country remained heavily dependent on US Aid, once US economic hit by depression in Black Tuesday 1933, their economic was pretty much far from better.

The conclusion is

Both Europe and US were weak situation.

Meanwhile, Germany by secret had it’s hidden plan to revitalize its industry rapidly, its military equipment and training by secret. Far in the east,

Japan was never visible that he had already gone a massive industry progression and development during Meiji Empire (so called Meiji Restoration), it has enabled Japan a confidence to expand its territory in order to fill its industry need as well as to realize its dream to be the only ruler throughout Asia continent and Pasific ocean.

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About JurnalPhobia

Graduate of International Relations of Airlangga Unversity currently an employee

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