KEBIJAKAN LUAR NEGERI : VARIABEL DOMESTIK
Kebudayaan, Identitas Nasional, dan Politik Domestik serta Oposisi
In the study of foreign policy analysis, we acknowledge the presence of two level analysis. It suggests that individual decision maker together must satisfy its foreign affairs as well as to satisfy its domestic demands. This key point leads us to the understanding that in analyzing foreign policy, we must look carefully the fundamentals idea building domestic demands.
Domestic demands contain chains of mutual elements. Those are included what we assume as a national identity and culture. The very inner of domestic demands rest domestic politic and opposition.
Furtther explanation about how these four elements are correlated each other, will be discussed below.
Culture and National Identity
Valerie provides a vast definitions regarding culture have been issued. However, it’s partially simply important to narrow our mind to the insights built by LeVine. LeVine addresses that culture is the matter of how organized people communicating. Kluckhohn states that culture refers ot pattern of thoughts, feel and reaction that symbolized in people manners and behaviors. Triandis assumes that culture is a component of human made of objective elements which shared common belief and habits. According to d’Andrade refers to adaptive form of behavior of its surrounding environment. While Geertz, refers culture as a symbolized meaning inherited historically.
There’s no need to memorize the vast scope of those definitions, what we shall have in mind is the simple thought that culture refers to adaptive behavior of its surrounding environment. While national identity lots of times are shaped by culture and building image of domestic motivation. Political beliefs is the implementation of a firm national identity created for long period of time.
The analyzing of culture entails
n Culture as the organization of meaning
n Culture as value preferences
n Culture as templates for human strategy
n Shared systems of meaning in foreign policy and foreign policymaking
n Differences in values and preferences in foreign policy and foreign policymaking
n Prefabricated templates of action in foreign policy and foreign policymaking
Analisis kebudayaan dapat menggunakan metode-metode seperti:
n Comparative analysis
n Subnational analysis
n Discourse analysis
n Horizon analysis
n Interaction analysis
Politik Domestik dan Oposisi
According to Dahl, the central critical point within political domestic was nature of the regime. Conversely, Milner addresses a distitinctive important term regarding domestic politic, it is players that matter and policy preferences, distributed information, and fashion of power distribution. The important players holding the role is potensial actors dan non-domestic actor.
Dimension of Organizing
n Proximity to the foreign policy decisionmaking (FPDM) positions
n Cohesive of fragmented each of the identified actor
n The number of people represented by the actor in question
n The degree of differece in viewpoint between domestic actor and the regime
n Activeness of a particular actor has been on a given foreign policy issue
Vital security strategy to face oposition are:
n Ignoring or refusing to engage the opposition
n Direct tactics
n Indirect tactics
n Out-persuade the opposition
n Form alliances with other groups
n Deflect the attention of the nation away
There is firm chains from culture, national identity, domestic demands and motivation, and domestic politic. Domestic politic is a collective image figured by image, stereotype, and beliefs that country citizens may share in common. There are critical points of political domestic. But those critical points may differ from one scholars to others regarding the context of history and events. However, the inclination may always be existed in order to make some predictions. Predictions are potentially used to arrange strategy. Security has become the complex problem troughout nations in most of part of the world. Therefore, exist some security strategy needed to coounter any opposition that exists within domestic politics.
Hudson, Valerie M. 2007. Foreign Policy Analysis Classic and Comtemporary Theory.