THE END OF COLD WAR 1979-1991


THE END OF USSR

As Soviet leader changed from Breznev to Gorbachev, from Nixon to Reagan; each leader was occupied with a distinct personality. Both leader either from US and Soviet Union has to face a major changes within their domestic politic. These two leaders were elected in the era USSR power gradually declining and losing its control over its satellite states.

Gorbachev inherits domestic crisis due to its harsh winter and economic recession. While United states has Reagan find a new strategic of diplomacy, leaving atomic diplomacy behind through agreement on SALT I and SALT II, diplomacy executed by Reagan is majority directed towards prevention.

Preventive diplomacy implemented within the agreement in 1985 saying that both parties agree to reduce their nuclear arsenal by 50 %. United states was in time ready to exercise its defense strategy in order to counter SU further hegemony.

The end of USSR was basically occurred because the internal upheavals within Soviet union border. As capitalist countries grows more modernized in which transfer technology was permitted, has made the such countries within Western europe face a sophisticated life, create more jobs and hold a rapid development on their economical life.

This creates a sentimental thoughts for people in SU satellite states to come in and have a better life. People starts to think that a capitalist world was much even better than living in SU iron curtain in which their freedom was totally banned. They had been urged by central government of SU to live under spionage. Then people living in those satellite states demanded for a revolution and break up from SU totalitarian regime. This has been a major issue that dominantly generates upheavals. As Czechoslovakia succeedly held revolution has caused a widespread confidence among satellite states to do the same.

One of the crucial example marked the process of SU comes to an end was the fall of Berlin’s wall in 9 November 1989.

EUROPE AND THE FALL OF BERLIN’S WALL

The fall of Berlin wall is argued as a symbolic manner in the following USSR break up. The process of USSR end is crucially seen as a chain of actions that are multifactorial. The first process includes Economic upheavals make USSR unable to fund his satellite states whenever they are in need of help due to its incapability to keep up with capitalist countries, such as western europe, japan, several south and southern asia.

Second, the Gorbachev’s policy encompasses reformation and openness, so called glasnost and perestroika, as a call for an opened market economic and modernized transfer technology are seen as a false move. Shortly, it’s implying that Soviet union wasn’t ready enough to maintain its unstability of huge migration, people are inclined to move from East-poorest to West-modernized country. Fortunately, Gorbachev failed to prevent his satellite states from falling apart.

Third, there was no available option for Gorbachev to counter US. This due to Gorbachev inherits unfavorable social and political condition from Breznev. Soviet union was to much focus himself on heavy industry of steel, coal, oil etc while he neglects the basic need of his people. People can’t feed themselves with neither missiles and weapons. This SU situation was hugely different from what US had. US was equipped with far more favorable condition of fine entertainment of Hollywood, fine medias coverage, and new technology.

SOURCE

Bernard Wasserstein. 2008. The History of Europe. New York: Oxford Press University

About JurnalPhobia

Graduate of International Relations of Airlangga University currently master candidate in Gadjah Mada University

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